JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government <p>The eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government (JeDEM) is an Open Access e-journal offering a rigorous double-blind peer-review. Submitting to and publishing in JeDEM is free of charge (no processing charges or APCs).</p> <p>The journal aims to bridge innovative, insightful and stimulating research, testing and findings with practice and the work conducted by governments, NPOs, NGOs and professionals. JeDEM encourages articles which come from different disciplines or adopt an interdisciplinary approach, including eVoting, ePolitics, eSociety, business IT, applied computer gaming and simulation, cyberpsychology, usability, decision sciences, marketing, economics, psychology, sociology, media studies, communication studies, political science, philosophy, law, policy, legislation, and ethics. JeDEM provides up-to-date articles with ideas to be discussed, used and implemented, whilst at the same time also being a repository of knowledge. We encourage a diversity of methods and theoretical lenses, including critical studies in these thematic fields.</p> <p>We publish theoretical, practical and empirical research in the categories research papers, invited papers, project descriptions and reflections. Authors can submit to JeDEM as a response to a special issue call for papers or as an ongoing submission. For publication sections and their policies as well as information on indexing see the section <a title="About the Journal" href="" target="_self">About the Journal</a>.</p> <p><strong>What are the main benefits of publishing with JeDEM?</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Our journal is truly open access: Publishing and reading is free of charge.</li> <li class="show">JeDEM publishes a variety of publications: ongoing and completed research articles are selected after a rigorous blind peer review by experts in the field. We also publish reflections and project descriptions.</li> <li class="show">JeDEM is indexed with <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCO</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google scholar</a>, <a href="">Scopus</a> and the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Public Knowledge Project metadata harvester</a>. Each article is identified with a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOI (Digital Object Identifier). </a></li> <li class="show">Due to the online publishing format, our publication process is comparably quicker than the one of traditional journals.</li> <li class="show">Papers published as articles that are not peer-reviewed can be extended and re-used for further publication, e.g. as regular peer-reviewed journal article.</li> </ul> Department for E-Governance and Administration en-US JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2075-9517 <p><strong><img src="/public/site/images/csemiczky/cc_by2.png"><br>JeDEM</strong> is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal (ISSN: 2075-9517). All journal content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Austria (CC BY 3.0) License</a>.</p> Social Media Adoption and Labor Migrants Protection: The Case of the Philippines’ Department of Foreign Affairs <p>The Philippines is internationally recognized as a best practice in advancing migration governance despite its complex, yet comprehensive landscape of migration policies, norms and structures, and institutions. More recently, the rise of social media has created ripples across sectors and actors due to its transformational power. The country’s Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) acknowledged this development and commenced its social media adoption process in 2011 and has rapidly evolved to keep up with the changing environment. Key informant interviews with officials and staff from the DFA reveal, that the agency has opened accounts in key social media platforms and that, this undertaking was positively received by its employees. According to the Mergel and Bretschneider model, it can be characterized as belonging to Level 3: Institutionalization and Consolidation upon the release of DO No. 16-2014, which prescribes “Guidelines on the Use of Social Media Use by All Units and Personnel of the DFA”. The cited document laid out specific rules and regulations on key facets of social media practices, such as access, content management, personal use of SM by DFA personnel, compliance mechanism, and administrative liability. Nevertheless, the DFA's social media adoption process is still challenged by inadequate resources and lack of a central sub-office, absence of success metrics, and spurious reports.</p> Jovito Jose Katigbak Copyright (c) 2022 Jovito Jose Katigbak 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 14 1 151 171 10.29379/jedem.v14i1.687 Towards Identifying Factors Influencing Mobile Government Adoption: An Exploratory Literature Review <p>Mobile government enhances public sector activities by using mobile technologies, such as handheld devices, smartphones, and laptops that promise anytime, anywhere services. Mobile government solutions are successful if many users adopt them. For this reason, the determinant factors of adoption are extremely important. Despite many studies conducted by various researchers in the field of mobile government adoption, most have focused on technology or e-government adoption models as their basis. To fill this gap, the paper collects possible driving factors, grouped into key factors, for mobile government adoption. The systematic literature review, which included 54 journal articles, led to the identification of 12 key factors affecting mobile government adoption, comprising 87 components. Some of these replicate previously identified factors in technology and e-government adoption models, yet the literature presented us with new specifics in mobile and government, such as the benefits that mobility brings and the influence of trust on adoption.</p> Gregor Eibl Thomas Lampoltshammer Lucy Temple Copyright (c) 2022 Gregor Eibl, Thomas Lampoltshammer, Lucy Temple 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 14 1 1 18 10.29379/jedem.v14i1.693 Publishers Working with Open Government Data: A Work Framework <p>This paper presents an Open Government Data (OGD) publisher framework, with work roles, field of work, and environmental descriptions. Previous knowledge about publishers' work is fragmented, with gaps and variations, indicating a high level of complexity with variations in approaches and processes. A two-stage research approach, based on Design Science Research, was used to synthesize the publisher framework. First, a tentative framework was synthesized from previous research, empirical material, and public documents. Second, it was reviewed by informed OGD experts, as well as researchers attending a work conference, and evaluated in two international contexts. As a result, the publisher framework includes environments, social units, and fields of work. The publisher framework is ready to be evaluated in other international contexts, where as, practitioners can use it to inform their work.</p> Jonathan Cruose Karin Ahlin Copyright (c) 2022 Karin Ahlin, Jonathan Cruose 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 14 1 19 49 10.29379/jedem.v14i1.688 Considering the Reluctance to Adopt Open Data in German Public Administration: An Exploration of Individual Innovation-Decisions <p>This article examines different forms of rejecting Open Data by administrative staff in German public administrations. The starting point for our study, was the observation that the diffusion of Open Data in Germany has been rather restrained in practice, despite potential advantages and strong political commitment. For this purpose, individual innovation-decision processes of administrative staff were examined. The paper is based on semi-structured interviews with experienced Open Data experts and provides insights into rejecting or negative attitudes as well as resistance to Open Data by administrative employees and thus, provides explanations for the reluctance such as perceived high risks associated with the implementation of Open Data. At the same time, experiences regarding barriers, like an insufficient technical framework for Open Data are presented. This provides important insights on how to address negative attitudes and opposition to Open Data effectively.</p> Yanik Elixmann Juliane Jarke Copyright (c) 2022 Yanik Elixmann, Juliane Jarke 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 14 1 50 71 10.29379/jedem.v14i1.681 Towards Identifying Social Factors behind (In)Efficiency of Voting Security Measures <p>Abstract: In this paper, we take a look at some standard requirements set to voting, and measures to achieve them. We argue that while the measures themselves are typically technical or organizational, their (in)efficiency is often determined by social factors. As the requirements set to voting are contradictory, every society will have to make trade-offs between them. Our analysis shows that one reason why some potential vulnerabilities are perceived as acceptable residual risks in some societies may be that, there simply is no tradition of abusing these vulnerabilities in this particular society. We identify a number of societal parameters, categorize them and study their effect on the (perceived) security of the respective measures.</p> Jan Willemson Copyright (c) 2022 Jan Willemson 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 14 1 72 85 10.29379/jedem.v14i1.673 The Liquid Proposal Facing Democratic Challenges <p class="Abstractetc">The objective is to show how Liquid Democracy intends to assume the sine qua non conditions of a true democracy and undertake the democratic challenges to achieve a good democratic quality. The conceptual analysis methodology reviews the origin and modalities of Liquid Democracy to evaluate it against the requirements indicated by Morlino and examine its possibilities through the challenges described by Linz and the dangers exposed by Levitsky and Ziblatt. The results present the level of quality attainable by liquid modalities. In contemporary conditions, the analysis also detects the confusion of Liquid Democracy with Electronic Democracy and the risks that both have acquiring technocracy seeking technopolitics. The originality of the analysis includes links to patterns of algorithmic democracy and artificial intelligence. In conclusion the article shows the value of the liquid model and elements of its political and communicative quality. The conclusions also point to some opportunities to improve democracy.</p> Jorge Francisco Aguirre Sala Copyright (c) 2022 Jorge Francisco Aguirre Sala 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 14 1 86 103 10.29379/jedem.v14i1.692 Social Media in Politics: Interrogating Electorate-Driven Hate Speech in Nigeria's 2019 Presidential Campaigns <p>Social media has become an indispensable and dominant means of communication and dissemination of information worldwide. This paper focuses on the use of Facebook by political supporters and electorates to canvass for support for their preferred presidential candidates in the 2019 general elections and the underlying hate speech that emanated therefrom. In this context, this paper seeks to critically evaluate how political supporters and electorates used the instrumentality of Facebook to share hate messages during the 2019 presidential election and its impact on Nigeria’s political space. The results of this paper indicate widespread dissemination of hate comments by political supporters and electorates in the furtherance of their support for their preferred presidential candidates. The paper advocates responsible use of Facebook in electioneering and the imperative of regulation to guard against the circulation of hate electoral comments that could heat up the political arena and trigger electoral violence.</p> Agaptus Nwozor Olanrewaju O. P. Ajakaiye Onjefu Okidu Alex Olanrewaju Oladiran Afolabi Copyright (c) 2022 Agaptus Nwozor, Olanrewaju O. P. Ajakaiye, Onjefu Okidu, Alex Olanrewaju, Oladiran Afolabi 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 14 1 104 129 10.29379/jedem.v14i1.683 Responsible Artificial Intelligence in Government: Development of a Legal Framework for South Africa <p>Various international guideline documents suggest a human-centric approach to the development and use of artificial intelligence (AI) in society, to ensure that AI products are developed and used with due respect to ethical principles and human rights. Key principles contained in these international documents are: transparency (explainability), accountability, fairness and privacy. Some governments are using AI in the delivery of public services, but there is a lack of appropriate policy and legal frameworks to ensure responsible AI in government. This paper reviews recent international developments and concludes that, an appropriate policy and legal framework must be based on the key principles contextualised to the world of AI. A national legal framework alone is not sufficient and should be accompanied by a practical instrument, such as an algorithm impact assessment, aimed at reducing risk or harm. Recommendations for a possible South African legal framework for responsible AI in government are proposed.</p> Dirk Brand Copyright (c) 2022 Dirk Brand 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 14 1 130 150 10.29379/jedem.v14i1.678 Editorial JeDEM Vol. 14, No. 1 (2022) Anneke Zuiderwijk Noella Edelmann Margarita Fourer Shefali Virkar Copyright (c) 2022 Anneke Zuiderwijk; Noella Edelmann; Margarita Fourer, Shafali Virkar 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 14 1 i iii 10.29379/jedem.v14i1.750