JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government <p>The eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government (JeDEM) is an Open Access e-journal offering a rigorous double-blind peer-review. Submitting to and publishing in JeDEM is free of charge (no processing charges or APCs).</p> <p>The journal aims to bridge innovative, insightful and stimulating research, testing and findings with practice and the work conducted by governments, NPOs, NGOs and professionals. JeDEM encourages articles which come from different disciplines or adopt an interdisciplinary approach, including eVoting, ePolitics, eSociety, business IT, applied computer gaming and simulation, cyberpsychology, usability, decision sciences, marketing, economics, psychology, sociology, media studies, communication studies, political science, philosophy, law, policy, legislation, and ethics. JeDEM provides up-to-date articles with ideas to be discussed, used and implemented, whilst at the same time also being a repository of knowledge. We encourage a diversity of methods and theoretical lenses, including critical studies in these thematic fields.</p> <p>We publish theoretical, practical and empirical research in the categories research papers, invited papers, project descriptions and reflections. Authors can submit to JeDEM as response to a special issue call for papers or as an ongoing submission. For publication sections and their policies as well as information on indexing see the section&nbsp;<a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/jedem/about" target="_self">About the Journal</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>What are the main benefits of publishing with JeDEM?</p> <ul> <li class="show">Our journal is truely open access: Publishing and reading is free of charge.</li> <li class="show">JeDEM publishes a variety of publications: ongoing and completed research articles are selected after a rigorous blind peer review by experts in the field. We also publish reflections and project descriptions.</li> <li class="show">JeDEM is indexed with <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCO</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google scholar</a>, <a href="">Scopus</a> and the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Public Knowledge Project metadata harvester</a>. Each article is identified with a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOI (Digital Object Identifier). </a></li> <li class="show">Due to the online publishing format, our publication process is comparably quicker than the one of traditional journals.</li> <li class="show">Papers published as conference proceedings and articles that are not peer-reviewed can be extended and re-used for further publication, e.g. as regular peer-reviewed journal article.</li> </ul> Department for E-Governance and Administration en-US JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2075-9517 <p><strong><img src="/public/site/images/csemiczky/cc_by2.png"><br>JeDEM</strong> is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal (ISSN: 2075-9517). All journal content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Austria (CC BY 3.0) License</a>.</p> Editorial Noella Edelmann Shefali Virkar Judith Schoßböck Copyright (c) 2018 JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 2 i iii 10.29379/jedem.v10i2.522 Pathfinder: e-Estonia as the β-version Estonia is often presented as the leading Digital Governance country globally, but this is not backed up by any of the standard rankings. This essay attempts to answer why this is so, by demonstrating that while the official communications strategy of the Estonian Government emphasizes the country's role as a pathfinder, global media demand, and some of the local protagonists also push, the perfection narrative. This is partially related to the specific historical and geopolitical situation of Estonia, and the subsequent local attitude towards the (Nation) State, which renders (since it is rather unique) the Estonian overall model of only limited use for e-policy transfer. Wolfgang Drechsler Copyright (c) 2018 JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 2 1 22 10.29379/jedem.v10i2.513 Inquiring, Inventing and Integrating: Applying Human-Centered Design to the Challenges of Future Government <p class="Abstractetc"><span lang="EN-US">The challenges of future government involve opportunities for the conception, planning and delivery of new government services. Applying the principles and methods of human-centered design offers an alternative path for how we go about designing them. Inquiring into existing design practices allows for the discovery of new forms of design thinking and the application of new design methods and processes. A focus on human experience and human interaction promotes innovation and inventions, newly integrates public organizations and directly contributes to the creation of public value by benefitting the individual, government and society.</span></p> Sabine Junginger Copyright (c) 2018 JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 2 23 32 10.29379/jedem.v10i2.520 MPs and Audiences on Social Media during Emergencies: Automatic and Manual Content Analyses of Facebook Posts Members of parliament’s (MPs) social media channels are significant arenas for communication between the public and national leaders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to explore how these channels function during emergencies. We present findings from a mixed-method study of automatic and manual content analysis of a unique dataset composed of all posts on Israeli MPs' Facebook pages during the entire 19th Israeli parliament. We compare scope of posting, engagement with posts, and the content in MPs' Facebook pages during “ordinary" periods and an “emergency” period, focusing on the 2014 Israel/Gaza war. Findings present MPs' social media pages as hubs of interaction between MPs and audiences in emergencies, even more so than during ordinary periods. MPs' social media pages involve significantly more posts (and engagement with posts) during emergencies. In addition, the content in them becomes more emotional, less personal, and focused on the emergency situation and the national leaders responding to it. Nili Steinfeld Azi Lev-On Copyright (c) 2018 JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 2 33 52 10.29379/jedem.v10i2.514 Live Enrollment for Identity Documents in Europe: The Cases of Sweden, Norway, Kosovo, and Estonia Digital image alterations (morphing) of identity document photos is a major concern, and may potentially allow citizens with malicious intent to enroll for identity document(s) later in order to be used by another individual. Taking the photo in the application office —live enrollment —can address this issue. However, this is a break with tradition and entails a sizeable overhaul in the public sector, which can be reluctant to change and often lacks the necessary formal methods that ensure a smooth transition. The objective of this paper is to map the main barriers and drivers related to live enrollment based on theoretical research and interviews conducted with high-ranking officers at passport authorities in Estonia, Kosovo, Norway, and Sweden. These countries have successfully switched to live enrollment. The main motivation for live enrollment has been increased security; for Estonia, user convenience was important and was behind the decision of keeping alternative application processes for the citizens. The absence of legacy systems makes it easier to implement public sector innovations, such as live enrollment. Behind the successful implementation is proper risk management: covering technological, political, and organizational risks. Finally, the research results indicate varying experiences, obstacles, cultural differences, and trade-offs, while emphasizing the need to understand barriers and drivers in a contextualized way. Tarmo Kalvet Henrik Karlzén Amund Hunstad Marek Tiits Copyright (c) 2018 JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 2 53 73 10.29379/jedem.v10i2.517 Skipping Ahead to the Good Part: The Role of Civic Technology in Achieving the Promise of E-Government E-government evolution has been described as a government’s internal process of digital development, which eventually transforms its ability to respond to the public. As time goes by and these promised benefits have yet to fully materialize, civic technology—online tools that aim to achieve improved online interaction between governments and the public—is sometimes placed in the gap. This study provides findings from 38 interviews across five US municipal civic technology implementations, answering the question of whether US cities which have adopted civic technology tools enjoy improved two-way interactions between governments and the public, and also whether an “interaction-first” approach to government digitization appears to spur additional e-government development. By selecting five very different tool implementations, the research design employs Mill’s Method of Difference to isolate commonalities springing simply from a municipality’s implementation of a civic technology tool. Interviews reveal a range of common effects beyond the simple improvement of the service-delivery experience. Emily Shaw Copyright (c) 2018 JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 2 74 96 10.29379/jedem.v10i1.455 Towards Enhancing Citizens Engagement: A Review of Parliamentary Websites in the 36 State Houses of Assembly in Nigeria <p class="Abstractetc">Parliaments represent the interests of citizens, and so remain critical to democracy and good governance. Therefore, for effective citizens’ engagement, ensuring online presence, and enhancing transparency of internal processes, parliaments’ leverage on Information and Communication Technology is of paramount importance globally. This study investigates the contents of official parliamentary websites in the 36 State Houses of Assembly of Nigeria to determine how they facilitate effective engagement between citizens and their elected representatives. The methodology used includes manual testing based on categories and critical sub-factors in line with Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) Guidelines. Desk research was also used to determine technical challenges for the implementation of e-parliament. The findings reveal that only 36% of the State Assemblies have official websites. Five are fully functional, and just five state legislatures effectively utilize interactive tools to re-engage the citizens. Results show that 58% of the state legislatures use social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter. The authors conclude that in enhancing civic participation, state legislatures need to provide a relatively open, more responsive, accessible, and interactive website while extending social medial tools.</p> Abdulsalam Salihu Mustafa Mahammad Sharifov Copyright (c) 2018 JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 2 97 111 10.29379/jedem.v10i2.498