JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government <p>The eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government (JeDEM) is an Open Access e-journal offering a rigorous double-blind peer-review. Submitting to and publishing in JeDEM is free of charge (no processing charges or APCs).</p> <p>The journal aims to bridge innovative, insightful and stimulating research, testing and findings with practice and the work conducted by governments, NPOs, NGOs and professionals. JeDEM encourages articles which come from different disciplines or adopt an interdisciplinary approach, including eVoting, ePolitics, eSociety, business IT, applied computer gaming and simulation, cyberpsychology, usability, decision sciences, marketing, economics, psychology, sociology, media studies, communication studies, political science, philosophy, law, policy, legislation, and ethics. JeDEM provides up-to-date articles with ideas to be discussed, used and implemented, whilst at the same time also being a repository of knowledge. We encourage a diversity of methods and theoretical lenses, including critical studies in these thematic fields.</p> <p>We publish theoretical, practical and empirical research in the categories research papers, invited papers, project descriptions and reflections. Authors can submit to JeDEM as a response to a special issue call for papers or as an ongoing submission. For publication sections and their policies as well as information on indexing see the section <a title="About the Journal" href="" target="_self">About the Journal</a>.</p> <p><strong>What are the main benefits of publishing with JeDEM?</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Our journal is truly open access: Publishing and reading is free of charge.</li> <li class="show">JeDEM publishes a variety of publications: ongoing and completed research articles are selected after a rigorous blind peer review by experts in the field. We also publish reflections and project descriptions.</li> <li class="show">JeDEM is indexed with <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCO</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google scholar</a>, <a href="">Scopus</a> and the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Public Knowledge Project metadata harvester</a>. Each article is identified with a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOI (Digital Object Identifier). </a></li> <li class="show">Due to the online publishing format, our publication process is comparably quicker than the one of traditional journals.</li> <li class="show">Papers published as articles that are not peer-reviewed can be extended and re-used for further publication, e.g. as regular peer-reviewed journal article.</li> </ul> Department for E-Governance and Administration en-US JeDEM - eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government 2075-9517 <p><strong><img src="/public/site/images/csemiczky/cc_by2.png"><br>JeDEM</strong> is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal (ISSN: 2075-9517). All journal content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Austria (CC BY 3.0) License</a>.</p> Editorial JeDEM Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020) Noella Edelmann Judith Schoßböck Copyright (c) 2020 Noella Edelmann; Judith Schoßböck 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 12 1 i iii 10.29379/jedem.v12i1.608 Democratic Governance of Digital Platforms and Artificial Intelligence? <p>The article addresses the digital transformation and new power asymmetries and challenges to democracy by the world’s seven largest digital platforms. Four different governance models are examined: The Chinese authoritarian model, the libertarian US-model, the European regulatory model, and the Mexican hybrid model. The challenges of digital sovereignty and democratic governance of platform capitalism are explored.</p> Ingrid Schneider Copyright (c) 2020 Ingrid Schneider 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 12 1 1 24 10.29379/jedem.v12i1.604 The Digital Transformation of Italy’s Public Sector <p>Italy’s digital performance does not fare well in the international rankings. Italy has tried disparate options for digitally transforming the public sector. Throughout the years, different governments introduced different types of governance but, unfortunately, the situation has not improved. Most recently, though, there have been signs of change. The country is experiencing a new awareness; the new challenges that the digital transition is generating are becoming a policy priority. Continuity and consistency in the country’s digital strategy are reasons to believe that the digital transformation of the public sector may be on the right track at last.</p> Daniela Battisti Copyright (c) 2020 Daniela Battisti 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 12 1 25 39 10.29379/jedem.v12i1.591 Values, Benefits, Considerations and Risks of AI in Government <p>There is currently an ongoing, global race to develop, implement and make use of AI in both the private and public sector. How AI will affect responsibilities and public values to be upheld by government remains to be seen. This paper analyzes how AI is portrayed in Swedish policy documents and what values are attributed to the use of AI, based on an established e-government value framework. Statements are identified in policy documents and are coded into one of four value ideal, as well as being either a benefit, consideration, or risk. We conclude that there is discrepancy in the policy level discourse concerning AI between the different value ideals and that the discourse surrounding AI may be overly optimistic. A more nuanced view of AI in government is needed for creating realistic expectations.</p> Daniel Toll Ida Lindgren Ulf Melin Christian Ø. Madsen Copyright (c) 2020 Daniel Toll 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 12 1 40 60 10.29379/jedem.v12i1.593 Volunteer Co-production in Emergency Management in Excluded Areas <p>This study explores ICT-enabled co-production using civil citizens and semi-professionals as volunteer first responders in excluded areas, in order to identify key factors and to compare the groups. It shows that volunteers can make a major difference if arriving first at an emergency site, e.g. saving lives, administering CPR and extinguishing fires. The semi-professionals are more protected than civil citizens where challenges relate to individual versus collective engagement, gender aspects, language barriers or insufficient legal protection. However, the citizens have an advantage in relying on easily accessible ICT support installed on their own mobile phones. For the initiatives to expand and enable long-term engagement, calibrated ICT solutions matching competence, role and language with incident and area are needed. The study confirms previous research arguing for the merging of policy science and information systems research in a rapidly digitalized public-sector transformation, but adds that they need to be complemented by perspectives from sociology in initiatives involving excluded areas.</p> Sofie Pilemalm Copyright (c) 2020 Sofie Pilemalm 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 12 1 61 86 10.29379/jedem.v12i1.583 Transforming Government by Leveraging Disruptive Technologies <p>While the public sector traditionally lags behind business in innovation, significant changes are anticipated with the broad diffusion of so-called disruptive technologies. The use of such technologies in public service, along with possible benefits, need to be well researched, and challenges be carefully discussed, analysed and evaluated. This paper applies scenario-based science and technology roadmapping to identify research and training needs in the implementation of disruptive technologies in public service. 70 experts reviewed 13 future scenarios and derived a number of research and training needs regarding internet of things, artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality, big data and other disruptive technologies. The identified needs serve as a starting point for a broader and more informed discussion about how such new (disruptive) technologies can be successfully deployed in the public sector - leveraging the benefits of these technologies while at the same time constraining the drawbacks affiliated with them.</p> Maria A. Wimmer Gabriela Viale Pereira Alexander Ronzhyn Vera Spitzer Copyright (c) 2020 Maria A. Wimmer, Gabriela Viale Pereira, Alexander Ronzhyn, Vera Spitzer 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 12 1 87 113 10.29379/jedem.v12i1.594 Algorithmic Decision-making and the Law <p>The Fourth Industrial Revolution is reshaping the world we know dramatically and is characterised by a close interaction between the biological, digital and physical spheres.&nbsp; Digital technologies are impacting all facets of our lives and create a series of new opportunities but also various challenges.&nbsp; The Fourth Industrial Revolution does not follow a linear development trajectory, but due to the diverse nature and rapid pace of technological developments, could rather be compared to a series of networks with multiple connecting points.&nbsp; This has caused the development of the law which deals with these concerns to generally be slow and unable to match the pace and scope of technological developments. In the context of public law there are many questions and challenges relating to individual rights, for example the right to privacy, and the role and responsibilities of government relating to policy development and regulation dealing with the Fourth Industrial Revolution.&nbsp; The concept of a Rechtsstaat could arguably provide an appropriate legal framework for shaping the ethical framework, normative standards and a value-based governance model for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, including for algorithmic decision-making. The public law concept of accountability should be contextualised in order to apply it to algorithmic decision-making.&nbsp; In the data-driven economy of the 21<sup>st</sup> century the pace and scope of technological developments that impact humanity requires the development of appropriate legal frameworks to reflect and accommodate the needs of society, in particular relating to the recognition of fundamental human rights.&nbsp; It is concluded that&nbsp; a broad set of ethical and legal principles, which can guide the development of international and national legal frameworks to regulate algorithmic decision-making, is needed.</p> Dirk Brand Copyright (c) 2020 Dirk Brand 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 12 1 114 131 10.29379/jedem.v12i1.576 Use of Social Media for Political Participation by Youths <p>This study investigated use of social media for political participation among youths in Oyo state, Nigeria; specifically, the types of social media used for political participation, the types of political activities social media are used for, as well as factors influencing use of the media for political participation. Survey research design was adopted for the study. Data was collected through questionnaire from 322 youths in three Nigerian universities. Findings reveal that social media was highly used by the youths for political participation. Facebook (98.8%) was found to be the most used, followed by Whatsapp (93.8%), Instagram (60.2%), Twitter (55.3%), and Yahoo Messenger (50.9%) respectively. Majorly, the youths used social media to participate in political advocacy (95.3%), political campaigns (91.9%), communicating with politicians (90.7%), political discussions (87.3%), monitoring and reporting electoral malpractices (85.1%), public consultations (80.4%), joining interest groups that engage in lobbying (64.9%), blogging about&nbsp;political&nbsp;issues (64.9%), and writing letters to public officials (51.2%). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norms, and computer self-efficacy significantly influence use of social media for political participation, which suggests that these factors could be considered when promoting use of social media for political participation among youths. Given the growing popularity and penetration of social media and the way they influence peoples’ lives, the empirical findings of this study add to understanding how and why social media use will function in motivating citizens to be involved in political activities.</p> Funmilola Omotayo Matthew B. Folorunso Copyright (c) 2020 Funmilola Omotayo 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 12 1 132 157 10.29379/jedem.v12i1.585