g4c2c: A Model for Citizen Engagement at Arms’ Length from Government

  • Axel Bruns ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (http://cci.edu.au/) Queensland University of Technology
  • Adam Swift Creative Industries Faculty Queensland University of Technology
Keywords: e-democracy, e-government, g2c, c2c, g4c2c, collaboration, participation, citizenship, Australia

Abstract

The recognition that Web 2.0 applications and social media sites will strengthen and improve interaction between governments and citizens has resulted in a global push into new e-democracy or Government 2.0 spaces. These typically follow government-to-citizen (g2c) or citizen-to-citizen (c2c) models, but both these approaches are problematic: g2c is often concerned more with service delivery to citizens as clients, or exists to make a show of ‘listening to the public’ rather than to genuinely source citizen ideas for government policy, while c2c often takes place without direct government participation and therefore cannot ensure that the outcomes of citizen deliberations are accepted into the government policy-making process. Building on recent examples of Australian Government 2.0 initiatives, we suggest a new approach based on government support for citizen-to-citizen engagement, or g4c2c, as a workable compromise, and suggest that public service broadcasters should play a key role in facilitating this model of citizen engagement.

Author Biographies

Axel Bruns, ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (http://cci.edu.au/) Queensland University of Technology
Dr Axel Bruns is an Associate Professor in the Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia. He is a Chief Investigator in the ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (CCi), and has been a Senior Researcher in the Smart Services Cooperative Research Centre.

Bruns is the author of Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond: From Production to Produsage (2008) and Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production (2005), and the editor of Uses of Blogs with Joanne Jacobs (2006; all released by Peter Lang, New York).

Bruns has coined the term produsage to better describe the current paradigm shift towards user-led forms of collaborative content creation which are proving to have an increasing impact on media, economy, law, social practices, and democracy itself. Produsage provides a new approach to conceptualising these phenomena by avoiding the traditional assumptions associated with industrial-age production models. His study of these environments builds on his work in the area of participatory or citizen journalism and blogging. For more information about the produsage concept, see Produsage.org.

Adam Swift, Creative Industries Faculty Queensland University of Technology

Dr Adam Swift is a research associate in the Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia, and is currently part of a Smart Services Cooperative Research Centre team exploring social trends in online news and information services. Swift has published on a range of topics associated with user engagement with New Media Technologies.

Published
2011-03-03
How to Cite
Bruns, A., & Swift, A. (2011). g4c2c: A Model for Citizen Engagement at Arms’ Length from Government. JeDEM - EJournal of EDemocracy and Open Government, 3(1), 57-69. https://doi.org/10.29379/jedem.v3i1.47
Section
Research Papers