Blockchain Technology in Lands Registration: A Systematic Literature Review




Blockchain Technology, Digital Transformation, Land Registration, Digital Assets, Consensus Mechanism


Blockchain technology (BT) is increasingly important in digital government as a means of efficient information management, decision making and an instrument for reform. This study presents a systematic review of BT's potential and application in land registration within low-income countries. The study uncovers diverse approaches to BT implementation that are influenced by local conditions and government structures. The study reveals that while there is a burgeoning interest in this field, actual implementations remain limited. The key barriers include resistance from government officials and a lack of local BT skills. Public blockchains have shown a high tendency for adoption, indicating a shift towards more transparent relationships between governments and citizens. The Hyperledger Fabric platform emerges as a popular choice due to its ability to provide secure, scalable, and robust solutions. However, there is a lack of clarity regarding the consensus mechanisms used, indicating a potential gap in current research practices. The study recommends an incremental approach to BT implementation, starting with non-threatening, transparent processes that could be expanded as part of broader government reform programs. Despite the potential of BT to revolutionize land registration systems and democratize tracking, it also poses a threat to existing power structures. Therefore, more robust empirical research is needed to evaluate the impacts and navigate the associated sociotechnical, legal, and institutional challenges. The study also proposes the establishment of a BT collaborative network among low-income countries to leverage shared experiences and develop a common framework for implementation. In the single instance where it was implemented in Georgia, public trust in government was restored. The study contributes to understanding how BT can be effectively harnessed to improve land registration systems in low-income countries.


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How to Cite

M. Zein, R., & Twinomurinzi, H. (2023). Blockchain Technology in Lands Registration: A Systematic Literature Review. JeDEM - EJournal of EDemocracy and Open Government, 15(2), 1–36.



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